An In-Depth, Scientific Look at the All-Day Energy Solution
Verb. en·er·gized, en·er·giz·ing, en·er·giz·es. To give or impart vitality and energy to (someone or something): exhilarate, invigorate, stimulate, vitalize.
Verb. per·formed, per·form·ing, per·forms. To begin and carry through to completion: perform, execute, accomplish, achieve, effect, fulfill, discharge.
These two distinct yet unmistakably intertwined definitions are the ethos for many of us when it comes to finding a balance between work, play, and exercise performance. But how can we manage this stressful feat without feeling drained and fatigued day in day out? I don’t know about you, but it’s always been a real struggle for me—to stay perked up and mentally alert throughout the day… and to keep from zapping out during my workouts! Until recently, that is…
Get Ready To Energize Your Body And Mind
Over the past 10 years, nearly 99% of all supplements have pretty much fallen into the fat-loss, muscle-building, or endurance/fuel-replenishment categories. Yet, amazingly, no Realdietary solutions have been designed specifically for increasing daily energy levels and mental concentration—despite the all-too-common stressors we face each day, which continue to take their toll on our minds, bodies, and ultimately our daily performance.
As an academic researcher and nutritional biochemist, I regularly find myself working very, very late nights in the lab. But on top of this, I’m also an Ironman triathlete—training up to 20 hours a week for a competition (which ismade up of a 3.8-km swim, 180-km bike, and a marathon to finish). For these reasons, I desperately needed something that could help me work late yet stay focused (and mentally alert), as well as perform with more intensity, for longer, during training. After carefully examining these factors, I took a good, hard look around the marketplace and realized there were not any suitable sports nutrition solutions to my dilemma.
Sure there were thermogenics and stimulant pills like ephedrine. Or pep-up substances like No-Doz and Goo (which are just caffeine pills and gels). However, what I needed was long-lasting energy. Not a temporary buzz. I needed something that worked with my body’s natural ability to produce energy. Not artificially, and definitely not against it. And, most important, I demanded that it be safe. Needless to say, the requirements I set and the supplements available on the marketplace didn’t leave me with many options. In fact, the selection was pretty much narrowed to nil.
It was then I realized it was time to develop a supplement combination based purely on scientifically effective doses of active ingredients that could help me, as well as you and the masses, overcome the everyday physiological and mental challenges of exhaustion. So, I immediately started working on the development of a supplement that fulfilled all of my hefty expectations. I looked a hundreds of different combinations of ingredients, scoured the latest scientific journals, and started building prototypes for myself to experiment with. It wasn’t too long after trying a few batches of my new energy pills before I knew I was onto something. Soon thereafter, I contacted my friends at iSatori Technologies. I knew they were on the cutting edge of introducing safe, scientifically based supplements. And within weeks, I teamed up with their research team, and we were “off to the races” to build the world’s first long-lasting, all-day energy pill.
In essence, a product to help ReEnergize Your Workouts and ReInvigorate Your Everyday Life!
As we continue in this article, I’ll explain how and why Energize™ became the answer I was looking for… and why it could also be the solution you need to improve your performance—in and out of the gym—by helping you focus better, boost your energy levels, and remain energetic all day long.
Inside Energize™: How It All Works!
Here, I’d like to take you inside of Energize to see how it’s constructed nutritionally, and I’ll clearly explain:
- How Energize works (and what it can do for you);
- Why it works, better than anything you could ever imagine;
- How it can help you get the most of our workouts and your life;
- The scientific evidence to back my words “100%!”
Policosanol is a mixture of alcohols isolated and purified from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L). It consists of 66% octacosanol, 12% triacontanol, and seven percent hexacosanol, among others. Supplementation with these active metabolites have been shown to increase strength, oxygen consumption, fat usage, and reaction time. So, let’s take a closer look at how this little known, intriguing nutrient works.
Endurance or resistance exercise, poor diet, or just a highly active working environment can severely decrease your body’s stores of glycogen. Glycogen, the body’s storage form of glucose primarily contained in muscle and liver tissue, is important for two reasons: 1) It releases glucose into the blood and is the brain’s primary source of energy, and 2) Glycogen provides fuel for your muscles to carry out daily activities.
Recent work evaluated the effects of octacosanol on running performance and related biochemical parameters (including blood glucose) in exercise-trained rats run to exhaustion on a treadmill1. Dietary supplementation with octacosanol resulted in an increased time to exhaustion by 46% in comparison to non-supplemented controls. Although the performance benefits themselves are fantastic, the authors also measured muscle concentrations of glycogen and blood glucose, and although they exercised 46% longer, there was no difference in these measurements. This data really show octacosanol can indeed spare muscle glycogen following endurance performance.
Imagine the effect this could have on your performance! Let me spell it out: “faster recovery from exercise, no more hitting the wall for you endurance athletes, and greater exercise intensity in the gym!”
This is all very interesting, but what about human data to back up the animal models? McNaughton and Saint-John (1986), who is, incidentally, my old degree supervisor, investigated the effects of only one milligram of octacosanol on chest and grip strength following an eight-week period of supplementation2. Not surprisingly, strength improved significantly, as did reaction time. Furthering this work, Stusser, et al. (1998), demonstrated that supplementation with the equivalent of 3.3 mg two times per day (a dose exceeded by Energize) increased both oxygen consumption and aerobic function capacity3. If that’s not proof enough, check out the many other studies backing these results for enhanced exercise performance and reaction time4, 5.
How Can Octacosanol Enhance Exercise Performance and Reaction Time?
Well, two studies may just give us the insight we need. First, a study by Kabir and Kimura (2000) showing octacosanol not only increases exercise capacity but can also be stored in relatively high concentrations in muscle tissues6. Indeed, it was hypothesized that octacosanol releases free fatty acids from within the muscle cell, enhancing its use as an energy substrate during exercise. Further work by the same group confirmed this and also showed it was taken up into a special form of bodyfat known as brown adipose tissue (BAT)7. This form of fat is metabolically active in comparison to the white adipose tissue we normally think of as fat and is indeed related to thermogenic (heat) burning of calories. Based on this science, Energize may also help regulate bodyfat (or at least mitigate its gain)! The evidence indicates octacosanol will increase in the amount you store in your body, suggesting the positive influence will keep growing, particularly in fat cells.
“…faster recovery from exercise, no more hitting the wall… and greater exercise intensity in the gym!”
Natural Caffeine (200 mg)
Caffeine belongs to a class of compounds known as methylxanthines, which have a mild stimulatory effect on the body that most of us are very aware of. Although one of the best documented effects of caffeine is increased release of adrenaline and mobilization of fatty acids into blood, there are a whole myriad of biochemical and physiological influences following its consumption.
These effects contribute to performance enhancement and body composition changes and include increased resting metabolic rate8, visual reaction9, wakefulness10, muscle cAMP activity11, muscle contractile force12, and decreased feelings of fatigue13 and pain14. As a side note for you competitive athletes, Energize does not disregard the IOC (International Olympic Committee) doping laws, making it an extremely effective performance aid in and out of competition.
It Takes a Scientifically Proven, Effective Dose to Make it Work
In a recent study on sleep loss, stress, and cognitive performance, Lieberman, et al. (2002)13, examined whether moderate doses of caffeine would reduce adverse effects of sleep deprivation and exposure to severe environmental and operational stresses on cognitive performance in SEAL trainees (you know, the elite U.S. Special Forces). The experimenters concluded that a 200-mg dose significantly improved visual vigilance, choice reaction time, repeated acquisition, self-reported fatigue and sleepiness, with the greatest effects on tests of vigilance, reaction time, and alertness. They concluded that 200 mg was the optimal dose… and surprise, surprise, you get exactly this amount in Energize.
Not just any source of caffeine will work. This study used pure caffeine. Not the synthetic anhydrous chemical form nor the bulky herbal form of guarana, but pure, natural pharmaceutical-grade caffeine. Which, at this time, can only be found in the Energize formulation.
Previous studies15, 16 have also shown that there is no doubt about the performance-extending and enhancing effects of caffeine, but as many of you already know, it was always related to the release and use of fats for energy as well as being glycogen sparing. Recently, evidence of caffeine’s other central effects has emerged, linking one of the body’s most powerful metabolites—cyclic AMP or cAMP—to performance enhancement. Cyclic AMP is a molecule vital for carrying out energy-producing reactions in the body. In a pilot study investigating caffeine11 on human skeletal muscle cAMP, its activity was increased significantly more than in the placebo group only 15 minutes into exercise, and performance time to exhaustion during cycling at ~80% maximum effort was extended more in the caffeine-fed group than the placebo. This is great news for endurance and resistance athletes. In another study a year later, a caffeine dose at a level less than a day’s intake of Energize was shown to increase muscle contractive force by 23%13. Finally, in human muscle, caffeine has been shown to increases cAMP as well as time to exhaustion15, 16.
L-Tyrosine is a nonessential amino acid that is synthesized in the body from phenylalanine. It is an important substrate for the synthesis of brain chemicals (known as neurotransmitters) such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, all of which help regulate your overall mood. As such, significant decreases in tyrosine have been associated with depression17. In other words, the more tyrosine in your body (which “fires” more of your brains’ neurotransmitters), typically equates to a better, more positive mood. Another little known fact is that tyrosine is involved in the synthesis of enkephalins, substances that have pain-relieving effects in the body18.
Well, you guessed it, because of its overwhelming positive effects, Energize contains the clinically effective amount of this all-important, “feel-good” amino acid: L-tyrosine.
So, to the Clinical Proof on L-Tyrosine…
There are many studies demonstrating the positive effects of tyrosine on physiological20 and psychological21 stress and exercise performance. In fact, tyrosine has been linked to numerous studies which have shown it may help individuals perform better mentally—aiding focus and alertness as well as inhibiting feelings of stress and fatigue.
The good news is, Energize provides one of the highest doses of L-tyrosine in any formulation sold on the market to date.
Panax Ginseng (also known as Chinese ginseng or Korean ginseng)
Ginseng roots contain ginseng’s active agents known as ginsenosides (glycosylated steroidal saponins). Although many companies use different forms of ginseng, Panax is the only form that has really been studied in humans22.(Please note: this is not important if you are a rat.) Panax ginseng’s many benefits on performance may stem from its adaptagenic, anti-stress effects23, 24.
So Why Have We Included Ginseng in Energize?
In essence, we were looking for a proven nutrient to complement the effects of caffeine on cAMP, and with panax, we certainly found it. Although ginseng has been used for thousands of years in Asia (by those searching for the elusive “fountain of youth”), the initial ground-breaking research conduced by Park, et al. (1996), on human tissue found that 25 mg of panax ginseng increased cAMP levels significantly25.
With that in mind, we decided to enhance the effects of ginseng, so we also included another superior nutrient. More specifically, a powerful methylxanthine called theobromine (from cocoa trees), which has been shown to inhibit phosphodiesterase26, the enzyme that degrades cAMP. Inhibiting phosphodiesterase leads to significantly elevated levels of cAMP27.
We are the first to report on sports nutrition’s misunderstood performance enhancer!
Glucuronolactone has been around for years and was repopularized by the success of energy drinks such as Red Bull™, but little information has been forthcoming about exactly how and why it can affect the body and exercise performance. Because of this, I thought it was about time the leading magazine in performance, physique, and life enhancement set the record straight by providing its loyal readers with the exclusive.
So, let’s get down to it! Glucuronolactone (a form of glucuronic acid) is a polysaccharide (hemicelluloses), specifically a smaller component of polymerized (smaller sugars joined to form longer ones) acidic sugars. The use of glucuronolactone has been suggested to be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes28, arthritis29, and in the management of nephrolithiasis (kidney stones)30. However, studies performed back in the mid to late 1960’s gave rise to its anti-fatigue and performance-enhancing effects31, 32.
The most interesting of these latter two studies was carried out by Tamura, et al. (1968), which revealed the direct effects of glucuronolactone and other carbohydrates on exercise performance and toxic substances produced by the body during hard exercise. Male rats (yeah, I know—not human, but it was the ’60’s) were split into two groups of six: a placebo group and an experimental group. They were then to perform three swim sessions to exhaustion and given 30 minutes to recover between each session. Prior to each swim, an equal dose of the active supplement such as glucuronolactone (see graph.1) or a placebo was administered.
The outcome was glucuronolactone was the most effective nutrient for prolonging time to fatigue—a huge 15% longer than the most commonly use supplement today for energy, “glucose.” The reason behind this may be twofold: 1) Increased antioxidant capacity, and 2) Maintenance of liver glycogen stores, a major source of fuel during prolonged exercise.
To further this exciting data, the researchers also checked out some other interesting changes following the use of glucronolactone. Authors suggest that during intense exercise, toxic substances produced by the body could be prevented (possibly due to inhibition of o-aminophenylglucuronide synthesis only corrected by administration of glucronolactone). Work by Dutton, et al.33,34, suggests this is through conversion to uridine-diphospho-glucuronic acid and/or the maintenance of glucuronic acid in vital organs of the body. However, I think evidence presented in the Tamura, et al.32, paper on the maintenance of cellular Vitamin C concentrations following intense exercise is one of the primary detoxifying and possible performance-enhancing pathways of glucuronolactone. Just as you thought it couldn’t get any better for this nutrient, it really does. White adipose tissue (or bodyfat to you and me) is maintained in many ways, but one pathway is by the uptake of sugars into these cells; well it’s official; exposure to glucuronolactone inhibits uptake of glucose into these fat cells35. Again, this additional data really helps illuminate positive interactions for fat loss between octacosanol, glucuronolactone, and the methylxanthines contained in the unique energizing formula.
On a final note: this data really needs to be studied clinically in humans, but on the tests we have run on subjects ourselves for Energize, it looks like a great addition! Look out for copy-cating of this article and Energize ingredients in the future!
The Final Pieces…
Beyond the four primary active ingredients found in Energize, the formula also includes a combination of important SECONDARY nutrients, such as B-vitamins and minerals (like magnesium) for their interactions in over 100 energy-producing reactions from DNA synthesis to red blood cell formation to improved oxygen transport, as well as the ingredients theobromine and rhodiola (an adaptagenic herb). These premium ingredients work in tandem to help support safe, long-lasting energy…working with your body’s natural energy-producing pathways.
“The premium ingredients inside Energize work in tandem to help support safe, long-lasting energy…working with your body’s natural energy-producing pathways.”
An Overview of the Ingredients Found Inside Energize:
Tyrosine: As a precursor to several important neurotransmitters, tyrosine appears to have potent stimulating effects on the brain and has been shown to help individuals perform better mentally—aiding focus and alertness as well as inhibiting feelings of stress and fatigue.1, 2, 3, 4
Octacosanol: The primary component of a natural extract called policosanol, in preliminary studies, octacosanol was found to have promising effects on endurance, reaction time, and other measures of exercise capacity. In another trial, octacosanol was found to improve grip strength and visual reaction time.1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Glucuronolactone: Glucuronolactone is a naturally occurring metabolite, a carbohydrate produced by the human metabolic system, formed when glucose breaks down and is believed to be helpful in ridding the body of harmful substances, providing an instant energy boost, and preventing storage of energy as fat. 28-35
Theobromine: Theobromine is the primary methylxanthine found in the cocoa tree. It acts as a mild stimulant that does not affect the central nervous system. Recent evidence suggest that theobromine relaxes the smooth muscles of the bronchi in the lungs and elevates levels of a chemical in the brain called serotonin for enhanced mood.1
Natural Caffeine: Caffeine, in its purest form, has been used for centuries because of its natural stimulating effects, for a jolt of energy, to fight fatigue, and to delay muscle exhaustion. Caffeine also mobilizes fat for energy, which is ideal for those exercising and seeking to reduce bodyfat.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Rhodiola: Building upon the clinical studies originally conducted in Scandinavian countries and the Soviet Union, rhodiola possesses well-documented qualities as an “adaptogen.” In this capacity, it appears to counter the exhaustion that occurs from working the body too hard, either physically or mentally. With rhodiola, problems of fatigue- or exhaustion-related sleep or appetite disruption and headache may lift.1, 2
Panax Ginseng: Ginseng, an “adaptogen,” is revered all over the world for its abilities as an immune booster, mind enhancer, and veritable stress reliever. Ginseng is considered a “restorative” agent as it automatically travels wherever the body needs support.1, 2
Vitamin & mineral cofactors: Essential Vitamins B1, B6, B12, folic acid, and other essential minerals, such as magnesium, are the body’s most complex co-factors. They play many critical roles, including maintenance of our nervous systems, formation of red blood cells, energy metabolism, and the proper functioning of our brains. Their importance to our bodies’ optimal performance defines the meaning of the word “essential.”1-4
Here’s a brief overview of the many powerful benefits of the Energize sustained energy release system:
- RELIEVES daily symptoms of fatigue and exhaustion from everyday stresses.
- IMPROVES mental clarity and reaction time—to help you think clearer and stay more focused.
- PREVENTS you from “hitting the wall” at 3:00 p.m. every day—increasing mental alertness and wakefulness.
- ZAPS pre-workout burnout and dramatically BOOSTS your workout performance and duration by delaying the actual time to physical/muscular exhaustion.
- IMPROVES your overall mood. In fact, Energize has been called a “feel-good” pill by many people who use it.
- Plus, it DOES NOT “OVER-STIMULATE,” so it’s ideal for parents, businessmen/women and military, armed forces, and medical personnel.
Sustained Energy Release System (SER)
Although we have included proven and effective doses in Energize, what really sets it apart is its unique metabolic support and delivery system.
One of the latest and most exciting advancements in applied sports nutrition is the application of sustained release delivery systems. Energize has taken the latest research to a new level. Instead of the usual rapid energy spike you may have experienced in the past with energy type products, we bring you SER technology, a delayed release system that allows the extended time release of the highest quality, effective nutrients in Energize. This means you no longer have to keep retaking your supplements every hour to feel the benefit; instead you take one dose and get fantastic results over a two- to four-hour period.
The manipulation of nutrient release technology brings you the most advanced, scientifically credible lifestyle-enhancement sports supplement on the market today. And that’s a fact!
A User’s Guide to Achieving Optimal Effects from Energize
Now you have the straight-up truth about Energize. All that’s left is finding out the optimum time to take it!
Unlike the blanket approach of many supplement companies, we recommend Energize be taken according to your specific goals and daily needs.
For those of you who are involved in prolonged competitive endurance exercise or an intense weight-training session, take three to four tablets 30 minutes before your workout or event. This will ensure a significant increase in adrenalin and free fatty acids to get you “psyched up” and maintain those valuable glycogen stores.For those looking for all-day and extended energy, as well as mental clarity and improved mood, take your first dose of Energize in the morning, after breakfast (or when you first wake, depending on when you feel you need a boost of energy), and split your Energize intake over two doses of at least four hours apart. This will help you maintain your energy levels throughout the day.
The Word Is Getting Out And It’s… “Energize”
That’s the end of my scientific spiel. I hope I didn’t confuse you. My intention was to help you decide whether a supplement, such as Energize, is right for you. You may not know, for sure, until you try it. Either way… whether you battle the daily challenges and the exhaustive stress of work, kids, bills, traffic, and maintaining a home… or you need to crank up your workout intensity, zap burnout, and get the most out of your training, I urge you to give Energize a thorough “test-drive,” like we have, and when you’ve tried it for at least four to six weeks, let me know what you think of it and how it feels for you. I’ll bet it’s safe to say, within the first days, you’ll be sending me a message emphatically stating: Thank You For Energizing My Life! I’m Dr. Tallon.
1 Kim, H., et al., “Octacosanol Supplementation Increases Running Endurance Time and Improves Biochemical Parameters After Exhaustion in Trained Rats,” J Med Food 6.4 (2003) : 345-51.
2 Saint-John, M., et al., “Octacosanol Ingestion and its Effects on Metabolic Responses to Submaximal Cycle Ergometry, Reaction Time and Chest and Grip Strength,” Int Clin Nutr Rev 6.2 (1986) : 81–7.
3 Stusser, R., et al., “Long-Term Therapy with Policosanol Improves Treadmill Exercise-ECG Testing Performance of Coronary Heart Disease Patients,” Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 36.9 (1998) : 469-73.
4 Fontani, G., et al., “Policosanol, Reaction Time and Event-Related Potentials,” Neuropsychobiology 41.3 (2000) : 158-65.
5 Consolazio, C.F., et al., “Physiological and Biochemical Evaluation of Potential Antifatigue Drugs. III. The Effect of Octacosanol, Wheat Germ Oil and Vitamin E on the Performance of Swimming Rats,” Rep US Army Med Res Nutr Lab, Denver, 11.275 (1963) : 1-2.
6 Kabir, Y., and Kimura, S. “Distribution of Radioactive Octacosanol in Response to Exercise in Rats,” Nahrung 38.4 (1994) : 373-7.
7 Kabir, Y., and Kimura, S. “Biodistribution and Metabolism of Orally Administered Octacosanol in Rats,” Ann Nutr Metab 37.1 (1993) : 33-8.
8 LeBlanc, J., et al., “Enhanced Metabolic Response to Caffeine in Exercise-Trained Human Subjects,” J Appl Physiol59.3 (1985) : 832-7.
9 Nehlig, A., et al., “Caffeine and the Central Nervous System: Mechanisms of Action, Biochemical, Metabolic and Psychostimulant Effects,” Brain Res Rev 17.2 (1992) : 139-70.
10 Goldstein, A., et al., “Psychotropic Effects of Caffeine in Man. II. Alertness, Psychomotor Coordination, and Mood,” J Pharmacol Exp Ther 150.1 (1965) : 146-51.
11 Greer, F., et al., “Comparison of Caffeine and Theophylline Ingestion: Exercise Metabolism and Endurance,” J Appl Physiol 89.5 (2000) : 1837-44.
12 Reading, S.A., et al., “Increased cAMP as a Positive Inotropic Factor for Mammalian Skeletal Muscle in Vitro,” Can J Physiol Pharmacol 81.10 (2003) : 986-96.
13 Lieberman, H.R., et al., “Effects of Caffeine, Sleep Loss, and Stress on Cognitive Performance and Mood During U.S. Navy SEAL Training,” Sea-Air-Land Psychopharmacology (Berl) 164.3 (2002) : 250-61.
14 O’Connor, P.J., et al., “Dose-Dependent Effect of Caffeine on Reducing Leg Muscle Pain During Cycling Exercise Is Unrelated to Systolic Blood Pressure,” Pain 109.3 (2004) : 291-8.
15 Costill, D.L., et al., “Effects of Caffeine Ingestion on Metabolism and Exercise Performance,” Med Sci Sports 10.3 (1978) : 155-8.
16 Fisher, S.M., et al., “Influence of Caffeine on Exercise Performance in Habitual Caffeine Users,” Int J Sports Med7.5 (1986) : 276-80.
17 Mouret, J., et al., “L-Tyrosine Cures, Immediate and Long Term, Dopamine-Dependent Depressions, Clinical and Polygraphic Studies,” C R Acad Sci III 306 (1988) : 93-8.
18 McKnight, A.T., et al., “Synthesis of Enkephalins by Guinea-Pig Striatum in Vitro,” Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci205.1159 (1979) : 199-207.
19 Chinevere, T.D., “Effects of L-Tyrosine and Carbohydrate Ingestion on Endurance Exercise Performance,” J Appl Physiol 93.5 (2002) : 1590-7.
20 Banderet, L.E., and Lieberman, H.R., “Treatment with Tyrosine, a Neurotransmitter Precursor, Reduces Environmental Stress in Humans,” Brain Res Bull 22.4 (1989) : 759-62.
21 Salter, C.A., “Dietary Tyrosine as an Aid to Stress Resistance Among Troops,” Mil Med 154. 3 (1989) : 144-6.
22 Bucci, L.R., “Selected Herbals and Human Exercise Performance,” Am J Clin Nutr 72.2S (2000) : 624S-36S.
23 Deyama, T., et al., “Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Eucommia and Siberian Ginseng,” Acta Pharmacol Sin 22.12 (2001) : 1057-70.
24 Gyllenhaal, C., et al., “Efficacy and Safety of Herbal Stimulants and Sedatives in Sleep Disorders,” Sleep Med Rev4.3 (2000) : 229-51.
25 Park, H.J., et al., “Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Lipophilic Fraction from Panax Ginseng on cGMP and cAMP in Rat Platelets and on Blood Coagulation,” Biol Pharm Bull 19.11 (1996) : 1434-9.
26 Dulloo, A.G., et al., “Potentiation of the Thermogenic Antiobesity Effects of Ephedrine by Dietary Methylxanthines: Adenosine Antagonism or Phosphodiesterase Inhibition?” Metabolism 41.11 (1992) : 1233-41.
27 Beavo, J.A., et al., “Primary Sequence of Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Isozymes and the Design of Selective Inhibitors,” Trends Pharmacol Sci 11.4 (1990) : 150-5.
28 Kuzuya, T, et al., “Effects of D-Glucuronolactone, L-Gulonolactone and Penitols on Insulin Secretion in Dogs,” Endocrinol Jpn 20.4 (1973) : 369-74.
29 Hodas, J. H., et al., “Treatment of Rheumatic Diseases with Glucuronic Acid,” Lancet 69 (1949) : 385.
30 Harlin, H. C., and Wiesel, L., “Modification of Urinary Surface Tension by Oral Glucuronic Acid: Its Application in Prophylaxis of Urinary Calculi,” J Urol 72 (1954): 1046.
31 Tamura, S., “Metabolism of Glucuronic Acid in Fatigue Due to Physical Exercise,” Jpn J Pharmacol 16.2 (1966): 138-56.
32 Tamura, S., “Effects of Glucuronolactone and the Other Carbohydrates on the Biochemical Changes Produced in the Living Body of Rats by Hard Exercise,” Jpn J Pharmacol 18.1 (1968) : 30-8.
33 Dutton, G.J., and Storey I.D.. “Uridine Compounds in Glucuronic Acid Metabolism. I. The Formation of Glucuronides in Liver Suspensions,” Biochem J 57.2 (1954) : 275-83.
34 Dutton, G.J., “Raising the Colors: Personal Reflections on the Glucuronidation Revolution 1950-1970,” Drug Metab Rev 29.4 (1997) : 997-1024.
35 Trahan, L., “Glucuronolactone and Glucose Metabolism in Rat Adipose Tissue,” Rev Can Biol. 29.1 (1970) : 7-17
Additional references for overview of ingredients
1) Dorfman, L.J., and Jarvik M.E., “Comparative Stimulant and Diuretic Actions of Caffeine and Theobromine in Man,” Clin Pharmacol Ther 11.6 (1970) : 869-72.
1) Darbinyan, V., et al., “Rhodiola rosea in Stress Induced Fatigue—a Double Blind Cross-Over Study of a Standardized Extract SHR-5 with a Repeated Low-Dose Regimen on the Mental Performance of Healthy Physicians During Night Duty,” Phytomedicine 7.5 (2000) : 365-71.
2) Maslova, L.V., et al., “The Cardioprotective and Antiadrenergic Activity of an Extract of Rhodiola rosea in Stress,” Eksp Klin Farmakol 57.6. (1994) : 61-3.
3) Shevtsov, V.A., “Randomized Trial of Two Different Doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea Extract Versus Placebo and Control of Capacity for Mental Work,” Phytomedicine 10.2-3 (2003) : 95-105.
B Vitamins + magnesium
1) Brilla, L.R. and Haley, T.F. “Effect of Magnesium Supplementation on Strength Training in Humans,” J Am Coll Nutr 11.3 (1992) : 326-9.
2) Fogelholm, M., et al., “Dietary Intake and Thiamin, Iron, and Zinc Status in Elite Nordic Skiers During Different Training Periods,” Int J Sport Nutr 2.4 (1992) : 351-65.
3) Manore, M.M., “Effect of Physical Activity on Thiamine, Riboflavin, and Vitamin B-6 Requirements,” Am J Clin Nutr72.2 (2000) : 598S-606S.
4) Suzuki, M., and Itokawa, Y., “Effects of Thiamine Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Fatigue,” Metab Brain Dis11.1 (1996) : 95-106.